What is an Open Source Textbook?

An open source textbook is a collection of educational resources available on the Internet. They are free and can be modified by instructors. This flexibility allows instructors to tailor course materials and make them more pedagogically appropriate for their classrooms.

They also help instructors avoid costly textbooks. This article explains what an open source textbook is and how they can be used by instructors.

They are free

Many of the open textbooks available are curated by libraries and other institutions. These resources are governed by Creative Commons licenses and made available to students at no cost. They can be used online or downloaded as PDFs. Many of them also have ancillary materials to support learning.

Open source textbooks are an excellent option for teachers because they can choose the content they want to use and tailor it to their course. They are also more affordable than traditional commercial books. Moreover, they can be read on multiple devices.

Several organizations have developed tools to help instructors find and use open textbooks. MERLOT is a resource that curates college-level OER, and BCcampus has created a collection of OER for the 40 highest-enrolled first- and second-year courses in British Columbia. Other options include the Saylor Academy Bookshelf, which offers a large collection of free, openly-licensed texts. You can also try a new tool called LibreTexts, which allows instructors to edit and remix existing OER into a custom textbook for their classroom.

They are customizable

Open source textbooks can be customized to suit the teaching style and content needs of individual instructors. However, it is important to check the licensing for each piece of text before making edits or adding additional content. Some open textbooks contain restrictions that limit what you can do with them, such as the Creative Commons No Derivatives license.

Creating an open source textbook requires a great deal of time and effort. It may be easier to adapt an existing book than to create one from scratch. This is especially true if the original book has been released under a flexible license that allows for modification or adaptation.

Several publishing tools are available for authoring and publishing open textbooks, including Word, Google Docs, and Pressbooks, a web-based platform that has been adopted by many Canadian institutions. These tools provide functionality for collaborative editing and commenting, and allow users to easily export changes to other formats. They also include accessibility tools such as Grackle, which helps evaluate and fix issues with documents.

They are a charitable activity

Open source textbooks are freely available to students and instructors. These books are typically digital and can be accessed online, in downloadable format or as a print copy. They can be shared, retained, remixed and reused under an open-copyright license. They are more affordable than traditional textbooks and enable students to stretch their education budgets.

They can also be customized by faculty to suit their teaching and learning needs. For example, a professor may modify the content of a textbook to address gender or cultural issues in their class. They can also include video, audio or supplemental material.

Nonprofit organizations such as the Community College Open Textbooks Collaborative and OpenStax College publish free textbooks for popular college courses. These organizations provide training for instructors, an online professional network and support for authors opening their work. Other resources include the MERLOT collection of OER, which includes textbooks, syllabi, lecture notes and homework assignments. It also contains interactive models, simulations and lab activities.

They are flexible

Unlike traditional textbooks, open source books can be modified for the purpose of teaching. For example, a calculus teacher may want to use different equations or examples from the text for their course. The flexible nature of these textbooks allows teachers to modify the content without breaking the copyright laws.

Another benefit of open source books is that they can be digitally printed or purchased in print at a low cost. This helps students save money on costly textbooks and can also improve access to materials. In addition, these resources often provide access to supplemental materials, such as test banks.

Several resources offer open source textbooks, including the MERLOT Collection of Multimedia Educational Resources for Learning and Online Teaching, the Open Education Network, and the Milne Library Publishing Initiative at SUNY Geneseo. OpenStax, an initiative begun at Rice University, has a growing collection of peer-reviewed open access textbooks in various disciplines. Another example is BCcampus, which has created open textbooks for the 40 highest enrolled first and second-year courses in the public post-secondary system.

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Soccer, the world’s most popular sport, garners millions of fans who eagerly follow every kick, save, and goal. In the age of digital media, live soccer broadcasting, or 축구중계 as it’s known in Korea, has become an indispensable part of the fan experience. Whether at home or on the move, enthusiasts seek platforms that deliver real-time action straight from the pitch.

To stay connected with every thrilling moment of their favorite teams and players, fans turn to reliable sources of live soccer broadcasts. The anticipation builds as the matchday approaches. Supporters don vibrant scarves, jerseys, and gather, be it virtually or in local pubs, creating a community unified by the love of the game. Every pass and strategy from renowned clubs reverberates through discussions, fueling debates and passion in equal measure.

Imagine witnessing a pulsating match between historic rivals. The excitement is palpable, the air thick with expectation. And then, it happens – a striking display of skill culminates in a goal that will be replayed and talked about for years to come. This is the essence of live soccer broadcasting; it captures the unpredictable nature of the sport and serves it to the viewer in a raw and immediate form.

Opting for an online platform with a robust 축구중계 service ensures that no fan misses out. 축구중계 is not just about viewing the game; it’s about experiencing every chant, cheer, and chant, as if standing amongst the crowd in the stadium. To add to the accessibility, many services now offer mobile compatibility, ensuring that even when on the go, the game remains at your fingertips.

As the match draws to a close, the intensity dial doesn’t drop. Fans dissect every decision, every move, with discussions that can last long into the night. It is this level of engagement that cements soccer as more than a game – it’s a cultural phenomenon.

Concluding, the world of 축구중계 has transformed how we consume sports. It ensures that no matter where you are, the game is always within reach, fostering a global community of soccer enthusiasts. It’s not just about catching the highlights; it’s about immersing oneself in the full 90 minutes of heart-racing action that only soccer can provide.


1. What is 축구중계?
– It’s the Korean term for live soccer broadcasting.

2. How has 축구중계 changed the way fans watch soccer?
– Fans can now watch games in real-time, from anywhere, enhancing their connection with the sport.

3. What are the benefits of watching soccer through live broadcasts?
– Live broadcasts offer the immediacy of the game, a communal experience with other fans, and access to every significant moment as it happens.

4. Can 축구중계 be accessed on mobile devices?
– Yes, many live soccer broadcasting platforms are now mobile-friendly.

5. Why is live soccer broadcasting popular among fans?
– It allows fans to experience the emotion and thrill of the game as if they were in the stadium, fostering a deeper connection with the sport.

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In today’s fast-paced digital landscape, the online gaming industry, and particularly 토토솔루션, is an intriguing world, where technology meets entertainment. The arena of online betting systems has become increasingly sophisticated with advanced 토토솔루션 platforms that provide users with a seamless gaming experience. But what is it about these systems that captures the user’s attention and keeps them coming back for more?

At the very heart of these platforms is the user interface – a well-designed UI is approachable, intuitive, and welcoming. It’s akin to walking into a user’s favorite hangout spot; everything feels right at home. That’s the experience a top-notch 토토솔루션 aims to deliver. When users log onto a 토토솔루션 website, they should be greeted with a layout that’s not only pleasing to the eye but also easy to navigate. This perfect blend of form and function ensures that whether users are newbies or veterans, they can dive straight into the action without a hitch.

Beyond aesthetics, these solutions are powerhouses of technology. They boast robust security measures to protect user data, ensuring that every transaction and gameplay remains a private affair. In an age where cyber threats loom large, this commitment to security is non-negotiable. Players want to focus on their strategies and odds, not the safety of their information.

Furthermore, the diversity of games available through such platforms is mind-boggling. From sports betting to live casino games, 토토솔루션 offers a comprehensive directory of options. The beauty lies in the convenience; a myriad of games are accessible under one digital roof. It’s about providing that rush of adrenaline from a high-stakes bet or the thrill of beating the dealer in a card game, accompanied by the comfort of engaging in these from one’s own home.

It’s also worth noting the social aspect. A great 토토솔루션 fosters community amongst its users. Chat features, forums, and leaderboards add an extra layer of interaction that elevates the gaming experience. It’s the digital equivalent of the camaraderie and rivalry found in traditional betting houses – a feature that continues to draw the crowd.

As we reach the end of our exploration, it’s clear that 토토솔루션 isn’t just a mere online trend; it’s a sophisticated ecosystem crafted to deliver the ultimate gaming experience.


1. What is 토토솔루션?
토토솔루션 refers to solutions related to online sports betting platforms, specifically designed to offer a safe, secure, and enjoyable betting experience.

2. Why is security important in 토토솔루션?
Security is crucial in 토토솔루션 to protect user data from cyber threats and ensure that personal and financial information remains confidential.

3. Can 토토솔루션 platforms be trusted?
Quality 토토솔루션 platforms implement rigorous security protocols to establish trust with their users. It’s important to choose platforms with a good reputation.

4. Are 토토솔루션 platforms legal?
The legality of 토토솔루션 platforms varies by country and jurisdiction. Users should verify the legality in their region before engaging in any betting activities.

5. How do 토토솔루션 platforms keep the gaming experience fair?
토토솔루션 platforms use random number generators and are subject to regular audits to ensure fair play and unbiased outcomes in their games.

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6 Principles of Open Science

As the guiding principles of open science take hold, new publishing formats and services are emerging. These align with a philosophy of sharing articles, code and data from the research process in order to empower researchers.

In this way, making research results freely available becomes a natural part of the scientific process and not an afterthought once the project is completed.

1. Openness

A core principle of open science is that research output should be freely available to the scientific community and the public. Ideally, this would include all data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles.

Openness requires a cultural change away from solitary and secretive science practices that are often driven by competition for scant resources or the desire to make a discovery before others. Nevertheless, there are barriers to full engagement with open science, such as the stigma around publishing in open access journals or the pressure to maintain high impact factors when job hunting.

Barriers must be addressed and incentives for engagement should be replaced by those that encourage researchers to embrace the principles of openness. cOAlition S is a leading initiative to address these barriers and champion best practice.

2. Collaboration

As part of its practice, open science encourages collaboration among scientists and with citizens. This requires changing the ways that scientific research is evaluated and incentivized, moving away from esoteric metrics such as research papers to broader measures of academic impact, fostering a community of scholars focused on collaboration rather than competition.

It also means easing the pressure that many scientists feel to produce headline-worthy research as quickly as possible, so they can meet the demands of funding bodies and meet societal expectations to deliver solutions. This also requires ensuring that all researchers have access to shared data and resources. This would include agreeing upon common data structures, vocabularies and metadata standards that would allow scientists to easily integrate open datasets.

3. Reproducibility

Research that can be reproduced allows other researchers to test and verify findings. It also helps to improve scientific methods by increasing collaboration and sharing of data sets.

Reproducibility is essential for ensuring the validity and reliability of science [2]. A lack of reproducibility can have negative impacts, including on health, slower scientific progress, wasted time and money, and may erode public trust in science.

Reproducibility can be promoted by providing incentives for scientists to publish their work. It can be encouraged by making all scientific outputs available through open access and by facilitating collaboration among researchers and between researchers from different disciplines (e.g. in astronomy and astrophysics).

4. Access

This pillar seeks to lower barriers that prevent researchers from sharing research products and/or accessing existing knowledge resources. It also champions efforts that enhance the quality of research through the sharing and re-use of existing information.

The democratic school advocates that everyone has a right to access the results of scientific research. It opposes the idea that publishing journals should claim copyright over experimental data, which prevents it from being reused.

It also argues that scientists should not be under pressure to produce headline-worthy results quickly, as this will lead to wasteful work. Instead, the school proposes that the research process be made more efficient by collaborating with external people and institutions.

5. Innovation

The new digital technologies are triggering novel open science principles and practices in universities. This is expanding the research ethos of these institutions to encompass not only university researchers, but also companies/industries, municipalities, citizens and international organisations in a mission-led approach for societal improvement.

It increases the accessibility, transparency, and reliability of scholarly outputs. It also aligns with the principle of equity, diversity and inclusion by opening the research process to marginalised scholars and societal actors beyond the traditional scientific community. It also counters the Matthew effect (Merton, 1968/1988) where established scientists get credit for work that can equally be attributed to non-established researchers.

6. Ethics

The open science ethos holds that scientific outputs should be freely available to all. Yet a commercial collection of vast databases called Big Data can potentially generate barriers to research that the open science ethos seeks to erode – including imposing fees for access and blocking secondary research that would be more useful than the original work itself.

Legal obligations around, for example, personal data protection, create legitimate boundaries to opening up research, but much of research is also regulated by soft law, guidelines and shared norms. Reflections on these questions could help researchers to operationalize open science recommendations in ways that are responsive to and compliant with relevant research ethics and integrity norms.

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Use Open Source Kahoot Alternatives in English Language Classrooms

Educators around the world are turning to free Kahoot alternatives to boost their learning games. These tools can also help them make meetings more interactive. They are easy to use and provide a range of features that can improve the classroom experience.

These platforms include Quizizz, ClassPoint, and Mentimeter. These offer a wide variety of features, and some have even integrated with PowerPoint.


Many tools offer a free version for educators and trainers to use. Some, like Kahoot, are renowned for their interactive quizzes and learning games while others, such as Classpoint and Quizizz, offer more customization options and other features.

These tools are ideal for a variety of teaching situations, including remote meetings. For example, Poll Everywhere allows participants to interact with one another via responses and also offers actionable team insights. This platform is also known for its engaging distance learning capabilities and has an integrated attendance gauge, allowing users to see who is present.

Another great option for remote teams is Pear Deck, which provides a variety of templates and questions to keep students engaged. Additionally, the software is fully compatible with Google Slides, making it easy to share presentations and quizzes.

Open source

Using gamification in English language classrooms is an effective way to improve student engagement and performance. It allows students to explore the language in a more interactive way and increases knowledge retention.

Whether you’re looking for a free Kahoot alternative or a more robust learning management system, there are many options out there. Look for a platform that has a solid feature set, is easy to use and supports mobile devices. It should also offer a reasonable price point.

Besides the ability to create lessons and quizzes, the best Kahoot alternatives allow you to run pulse-checks with questions, polls and checkboxes. This is especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic, when teachers need to keep their classes engaged. The platform’s visual reports help with formative assessment by identifying students who need further assistance.

Easy to use

The platform has an easy-to-use interface and a variety of tools to engage students. Educators can use it to review course material and introduce new topics. It also encourages learners to think outside the box and solve problems creatively. Its audio-visual stimuli and fantasy “game-show” environment increase student absorption during problem-solving compared to other computer-mediated learning tools.

In addition to live games, teachers can assign Kahoots as homework assignments or practice tests. Participants also reported that the tool was useful for reviewing lecture content and exam preparation.

Its flexibility makes it a great choice for remote teams. Users can create presentations, quizzes, and lessons with multiple templates. In addition, they can customize their experience by choosing different fonts and colors. They can also share their kahoots with the entire classroom or specific groups of students.

Fun to play

The platform also offers a variety of game modes and templates to customize the experience. For example, the study mode allows professors to pose questions that require more thought than mere rapid-fire recall. This type of formative assessment has been shown to increase student engagement and promote food-for-thought discussion.

Students can be encouraged to participate by allowing them to answer anonymously, which helps overcome social issues like shyness. This makes Slides With Friends a great tool for use in classrooms with diverse learners.

Kahoot is flexible and easy to use, but it does have some limitations. For example, it can only be used during a synchronous class, and is not suitable for classes with asynchronous participants. Luckily, the team is working to address these problems.


Kahoot is a popular tool for making learning engaging and interactive. It has become an essential tool in classrooms and corporate training environments. It can also help remote teams learn more effectively. However, Kahoot has its limitations. The tool is not ideal for students who need to respond quickly or for educators who prefer to reward comprehension over speed.

A better Kahoot alternative is QuestionPro, which has a variety of questions and allows you to select open-ended or multiple-response answers. This versatility helps teachers tailor the platform to their instructional goals. It can also support more sophisticated assessment tools, such as calculating averages and providing instant feedback. The software also offers integrations with other educational apps and video conferencing platforms. This makes it easy to engage students and remote teams.

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Open Source 3D

Open source 3d is a collection of software that allows anyone to sculpt three-dimensional models. The software is available for free and offers a variety of tools that allow students to create complex designs. It also includes a variety of tools for VFX professionals, including raw footage import, camera and object tracking, and area masking.


Blender is a 3D animation program that is used by individuals and studios to create amateur projects, advertisements, and feature films. Its open-source nature means it is constantly updated and improved by the community, ensuring that users have access to the latest features. It also includes a variety of tutorials and forums for support, making it easy to learn.

Its primary production rendering engine has undergone a major overhaul in recent years, improving performance by up to 8x. It supports multiple file formats and has a full range of editing tools including sculpting, data import/export, compositing and color grading.

The software is free to download and is compatible with Windows, Linux, and macOS. It can be enhanced with a variety of scripts and plugins, which can speed up the workflow or create specialist simulations. These extensions can be free but many are paid for, so users should be prepared to spend some money. This can be especially true for those who are working on large-scale projects.


Dust3D is a free open source 3D modeling software that aims to help users create low poly models used in video games and 3D printing. The tool, created by Jeremy Hu, is available on Windows, Linux, and Mac. It features auto UV unwrapping, auto rigging with PBR material support, and pose and motion authoring.

The tool uses a declarative (non-destructive) modeling approach, with users defining the shape of an object by drawing front and side diagrams made up of connected nodes. The final mesh is automatically generated based on these diagrams. Model parts can then be combined using basic boolean and grouping options.

The software is distributed as an AppImage, meaning that it’s a single file application that can be downloaded and run from any Linux distribution. This means that it can be updated without changing the system’s menus, icons, or file association settings. It also doesn’t require a package manager and can be run in a sandbox like Firejail.

Mandelbulb 3D

Mandelbulb 3D is a free program that enables users to create fractal designs and animations. Its fractal creation tools are powerful and intuitive, allowing users to easily manipulate a variety of different fractal equations and geometric parameters. The software is also able to render 3D images in a variety of formats, including stereoscopic 3D.

A Mandelbulb is a three-dimensional iterative fractal that was discovered in 2009 by a group of innovators from Fractal Forums. The discovery revealed a new type of object that is mathematically similar to the two-dimensional Mandelbrot set, but much more complex and infinitely more interesting. It also opened the door to a whole new world of 3D fractals.

Wings 3D

Wings 3D is an advanced subdivision modeler and has a variety of modeling tools, a customizable interface, support for lights and materials, and a built-in UV mapping facility. It was created using the open-source functional programming language Erlang and is distributed by Ericsson.

The Wings tutorial center provides a few text and video overviews of basic modeling. It also has a few simple, yet helpful, finger exercises for new users. The program is designed to be easy to use, but some of the mouse and selection functions differ from standard Windows software. For example, when clicking on different items, Wings selects them all, including vertices. The move|normal option also works differently.

Wings uses context-sensitive hotkeys and assigns a keyboard shortcut for each tool or command in the current mode. For example, the S key can be used to smooth faces, slide edges and select vertices. However, the same hotkey cannot be assigned to multiple commands at once.

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