6 Principles of Open Science

As the guiding principles of open science take hold, new publishing formats and services are emerging. These align with a philosophy of sharing articles, code and data from the research process in order to empower researchers.

In this way, making research results freely available becomes a natural part of the scientific process and not an afterthought once the project is completed.

1. Openness

A core principle of open science is that research output should be freely available to the scientific community and the public. Ideally, this would include all data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles.

Openness requires a cultural change away from solitary and secretive science practices that are often driven by competition for scant resources or the desire to make a discovery before others. Nevertheless, there are barriers to full engagement with open science, such as the stigma around publishing in open access journals or the pressure to maintain high impact factors when job hunting.

Barriers must be addressed and incentives for engagement should be replaced by those that encourage researchers to embrace the principles of openness. cOAlition S is a leading initiative to address these barriers and champion best practice.

2. Collaboration

As part of its practice, open science encourages collaboration among scientists and with citizens. This requires changing the ways that scientific research is evaluated and incentivized, moving away from esoteric metrics such as research papers to broader measures of academic impact, fostering a community of scholars focused on collaboration rather than competition.

It also means easing the pressure that many scientists feel to produce headline-worthy research as quickly as possible, so they can meet the demands of funding bodies and meet societal expectations to deliver solutions. This also requires ensuring that all researchers have access to shared data and resources. This would include agreeing upon common data structures, vocabularies and metadata standards that would allow scientists to easily integrate open datasets.

3. Reproducibility

Research that can be reproduced allows other researchers to test and verify findings. It also helps to improve scientific methods by increasing collaboration and sharing of data sets.

Reproducibility is essential for ensuring the validity and reliability of science [2]. A lack of reproducibility can have negative impacts, including on health, slower scientific progress, wasted time and money, and may erode public trust in science.

Reproducibility can be promoted by providing incentives for scientists to publish their work. It can be encouraged by making all scientific outputs available through open access and by facilitating collaboration among researchers and between researchers from different disciplines (e.g. in astronomy and astrophysics).

4. Access

This pillar seeks to lower barriers that prevent researchers from sharing research products and/or accessing existing knowledge resources. It also champions efforts that enhance the quality of research through the sharing and re-use of existing information.

The democratic school advocates that everyone has a right to access the results of scientific research. It opposes the idea that publishing journals should claim copyright over experimental data, which prevents it from being reused.

It also argues that scientists should not be under pressure to produce headline-worthy results quickly, as this will lead to wasteful work. Instead, the school proposes that the research process be made more efficient by collaborating with external people and institutions.

5. Innovation

The new digital technologies are triggering novel open science principles and practices in universities. This is expanding the research ethos of these institutions to encompass not only university researchers, but also companies/industries, municipalities, citizens and international organisations in a mission-led approach for societal improvement.

It increases the accessibility, transparency, and reliability of scholarly outputs. It also aligns with the principle of equity, diversity and inclusion by opening the research process to marginalised scholars and societal actors beyond the traditional scientific community. It also counters the Matthew effect (Merton, 1968/1988) where established scientists get credit for work that can equally be attributed to non-established researchers.

6. Ethics

The open science ethos holds that scientific outputs should be freely available to all. Yet a commercial collection of vast databases called Big Data can potentially generate barriers to research that the open science ethos seeks to erode – including imposing fees for access and blocking secondary research that would be more useful than the original work itself.

Legal obligations around, for example, personal data protection, create legitimate boundaries to opening up research, but much of research is also regulated by soft law, guidelines and shared norms. Reflections on these questions could help researchers to operationalize open science recommendations in ways that are responsive to and compliant with relevant research ethics and integrity norms.

Go Home

Use Open Source Kahoot Alternatives in English Language Classrooms

Educators around the world are turning to free Kahoot alternatives to boost their learning games. These tools can also help them make meetings more interactive. They are easy to use and provide a range of features that can improve the classroom experience.

These platforms include Quizizz, ClassPoint, and Mentimeter. These offer a wide variety of features, and some have even integrated with PowerPoint.


Many tools offer a free version for educators and trainers to use. Some, like Kahoot, are renowned for their interactive quizzes and learning games while others, such as Classpoint and Quizizz, offer more customization options and other features.

These tools are ideal for a variety of teaching situations, including remote meetings. For example, Poll Everywhere allows participants to interact with one another via responses and also offers actionable team insights. This platform is also known for its engaging distance learning capabilities and has an integrated attendance gauge, allowing users to see who is present.

Another great option for remote teams is Pear Deck, which provides a variety of templates and questions to keep students engaged. Additionally, the software is fully compatible with Google Slides, making it easy to share presentations and quizzes.

Open source

Using gamification in English language classrooms is an effective way to improve student engagement and performance. It allows students to explore the language in a more interactive way and increases knowledge retention.

Whether you’re looking for a free Kahoot alternative or a more robust learning management system, there are many options out there. Look for a platform that has a solid feature set, is easy to use and supports mobile devices. It should also offer a reasonable price point.

Besides the ability to create lessons and quizzes, the best Kahoot alternatives allow you to run pulse-checks with questions, polls and checkboxes. This is especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic, when teachers need to keep their classes engaged. The platform’s visual reports help with formative assessment by identifying students who need further assistance.

Easy to use

The platform has an easy-to-use interface and a variety of tools to engage students. Educators can use it to review course material and introduce new topics. It also encourages learners to think outside the box and solve problems creatively. Its audio-visual stimuli and fantasy “game-show” environment increase student absorption during problem-solving compared to other computer-mediated learning tools.

In addition to live games, teachers can assign Kahoots as homework assignments or practice tests. Participants also reported that the tool was useful for reviewing lecture content and exam preparation.

Its flexibility makes it a great choice for remote teams. Users can create presentations, quizzes, and lessons with multiple templates. In addition, they can customize their experience by choosing different fonts and colors. They can also share their kahoots with the entire classroom or specific groups of students.

Fun to play

The platform also offers a variety of game modes and templates to customize the experience. For example, the study mode allows professors to pose questions that require more thought than mere rapid-fire recall. This type of formative assessment has been shown to increase student engagement and promote food-for-thought discussion.

Students can be encouraged to participate by allowing them to answer anonymously, which helps overcome social issues like shyness. This makes Slides With Friends a great tool for use in classrooms with diverse learners.

Kahoot is flexible and easy to use, but it does have some limitations. For example, it can only be used during a synchronous class, and is not suitable for classes with asynchronous participants. Luckily, the team is working to address these problems.


Kahoot is a popular tool for making learning engaging and interactive. It has become an essential tool in classrooms and corporate training environments. It can also help remote teams learn more effectively. However, Kahoot has its limitations. The tool is not ideal for students who need to respond quickly or for educators who prefer to reward comprehension over speed.

A better Kahoot alternative is QuestionPro, which has a variety of questions and allows you to select open-ended or multiple-response answers. This versatility helps teachers tailor the platform to their instructional goals. It can also support more sophisticated assessment tools, such as calculating averages and providing instant feedback. The software also offers integrations with other educational apps and video conferencing platforms. This makes it easy to engage students and remote teams.

Float back to the home screen

Open Source 3D

Open source 3d is a collection of software that allows anyone to sculpt three-dimensional models. The software is available for free and offers a variety of tools that allow students to create complex designs. It also includes a variety of tools for VFX professionals, including raw footage import, camera and object tracking, and area masking.


Blender is a 3D animation program that is used by individuals and studios to create amateur projects, advertisements, and feature films. Its open-source nature means it is constantly updated and improved by the community, ensuring that users have access to the latest features. It also includes a variety of tutorials and forums for support, making it easy to learn.

Its primary production rendering engine has undergone a major overhaul in recent years, improving performance by up to 8x. It supports multiple file formats and has a full range of editing tools including sculpting, data import/export, compositing and color grading.

The software is free to download and is compatible with Windows, Linux, and macOS. It can be enhanced with a variety of scripts and plugins, which can speed up the workflow or create specialist simulations. These extensions can be free but many are paid for, so users should be prepared to spend some money. This can be especially true for those who are working on large-scale projects.


Dust3D is a free open source 3D modeling software that aims to help users create low poly models used in video games and 3D printing. The tool, created by Jeremy Hu, is available on Windows, Linux, and Mac. It features auto UV unwrapping, auto rigging with PBR material support, and pose and motion authoring.

The tool uses a declarative (non-destructive) modeling approach, with users defining the shape of an object by drawing front and side diagrams made up of connected nodes. The final mesh is automatically generated based on these diagrams. Model parts can then be combined using basic boolean and grouping options.

The software is distributed as an AppImage, meaning that it’s a single file application that can be downloaded and run from any Linux distribution. This means that it can be updated without changing the system’s menus, icons, or file association settings. It also doesn’t require a package manager and can be run in a sandbox like Firejail.

Mandelbulb 3D

Mandelbulb 3D is a free program that enables users to create fractal designs and animations. Its fractal creation tools are powerful and intuitive, allowing users to easily manipulate a variety of different fractal equations and geometric parameters. The software is also able to render 3D images in a variety of formats, including stereoscopic 3D.

A Mandelbulb is a three-dimensional iterative fractal that was discovered in 2009 by a group of innovators from Fractal Forums. The discovery revealed a new type of object that is mathematically similar to the two-dimensional Mandelbrot set, but much more complex and infinitely more interesting. It also opened the door to a whole new world of 3D fractals.

Wings 3D

Wings 3D is an advanced subdivision modeler and has a variety of modeling tools, a customizable interface, support for lights and materials, and a built-in UV mapping facility. It was created using the open-source functional programming language Erlang and is distributed by Ericsson.

The Wings tutorial center provides a few text and video overviews of basic modeling. It also has a few simple, yet helpful, finger exercises for new users. The program is designed to be easy to use, but some of the mouse and selection functions differ from standard Windows software. For example, when clicking on different items, Wings selects them all, including vertices. The move|normal option also works differently.

Wings uses context-sensitive hotkeys and assigns a keyboard shortcut for each tool or command in the current mode. For example, the S key can be used to smooth faces, slide edges and select vertices. However, the same hotkey cannot be assigned to multiple commands at once.

Continue the reading journey

Top 5 Tools You Can Use in a js Open Source Project

A js open source project has codes that other developers can use to perform specific tasks. These libraries can save developers significant time. They are also easy to use.

Using the right JS framework is crucial for front-end web and app development. Choosing the right one depends on your unique requirements and future goals.


Babel is a frontend build tool that can transform modern JavaScript syntax into a format that will work in all environments. It helps developers to leverage the latest language features, such as arrow functions and classes. In addition, it enables developers to use JSX, which is the syntax used to write React components.

The platform offers a variety of support options, including an FAQ and a live chat feature. The FAQ answers common questions, while the live chat feature allows users to speak with a customer service representative.

Babel has a plugin system that lets developers add custom transformations to the compiler. These extensions are known as code transformers and can modify the AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) before it is turned into JavaScript. They can also change the behavior of the compiler, such as adding static & runtime type checks using flow-based annotations, automatic closure hoisting and elimination, and hygienic JavaScript macros. They can even make code faster and more memory efficient.


iziModal is an elegant, responsive, flexible and lightweight modal plugin for jQuery. It has a simple markup API and no dependencies. It truncates text inside HTML elements and stores extra original texts in hidden element span>, ensuring that users don’t lose the content they want. It also supports groups of modals with caption and navigation.

The goal of a modal is to grab the user’s attention and present important information in an easy-to-understand format. It is important to make it clear what the user needs to do to close the modal and continue using your website or app. For example, Squarespace’s modals offer an “x” button and a close button to allow users to exit without interrupting their workflow.

iziModal is an open source front-end framework that provides fast performance for websites and apps with React. It uses features such as code-splitting, inlining styles, image optimization, lazy-loading, and serverless rendering to optimize sites. It’s a great choice for developers who need to build high-performing websites and apps with minimal maintenance.


Designed in 2013 by Nicholas Zakas, ESLint is an open-source JavaScript linting tool that can be integrated into most text editors to automatically check code quality. It can be used to catch bugs and issues early in the development process, saving time and reducing risk. It can also be run as part of a continuous integration (CI) pipeline to ensure that code meets quality standards before being shipped.

ESLint is a flexible, lightweight, and nonintrusive tool that supports many aspects of JavaScript syntax. It also allows developers to customize the rules based on their project’s needs. For example, the eslint-plugin-react plugin provides rules for React components, such as state and prop variables, that help prevent common pitfalls.

Another option is to use eslint-config-standard-with-typescript, which is a pre-configured ESLint configuration that enforces the JavaScript standard style. It also includes additional rules and configurations for TypeScript. This helps to improve code consistency and maintainability, making it easier for multiple developers to work on the same project.


SonarJS is a static code analysis tool that finds bugs, code smells and security vulnerabilities in JavaScript. It is tightly integrated with the IDE and CI/CD workflows to deliver real-time feedback. It also allows for contextual guidance and automatic quick fixes. Its goal is to have zero false-positives, so it can help developers focus on fixing what matters.

The tool supports a wide range of languages and can be customized by adding plugins. It can detect bundled and generated code, such as Webpack, which can be helpful when debugging problems. The tool can also detect duplicated lines and cyclic dependencies.

The SonarQube UI allows users to manage their projects, code quality metrics and code coverage results. It also has features such as Quality Gates, which allow users to set thresholds and limit the number of blocker or critical issues. The tool can also analyze code from multiple languages using the same plugins. Its code refactoring features can also improve a program’s readability and maintainability.

Click to get more information

Why Open Source is Important

The open source movement is responsible for many of the innovations we see today. It offers a number of benefits, including cost savings and reliability.

Open source software also enables developers to feel that their work has value, which helps prevent job burnout. This translates into greater employee satisfaction and lower turnover rates.

It encourages innovation

When developers are able to add new features to their software without having to wait for an outside vendor, they can innovate faster. This also allows them to scale the new technologies quickly to a larger audience.

This openness also encourages a community of users and developers to form around the software. This community helps test and maintain the code, and can even shape its future direction. This is why most open source applications have their own user groups and meetups.

Additionally, many people prefer open source software because it gives them more control over the product. This is especially important for people who aren’t programmers, because they can use the software to suit their needs and make changes as needed. This is also beneficial for businesses, as they can use the software to solve their own problems instead of waiting for a vendor to come up with a solution. This also enables companies to innovate faster.

It saves money

One of the biggest benefits of open source software is that it is often free or cheaper than proprietary software. This saves businesses money on license and maintenance fees. It also helps companies avoid the need to buy more hardware to run the software.

Another benefit is that open source programs can be modified by any user. This gives them more flexibility and scalability than their counterparts. This allows businesses to start small with community versions and then upgrade to commercially-supported solutions as their business needs grow.

While open source software is more cost-effective, it requires a certain level of technical knowledge to use and implement. This is why it’s important to invest in training your team before implementing any new software. In addition, the open source community is always on the lookout for errors or bugs in the code of existing programs. This can help users to fix these mistakes before they cause more serious problems.

It is more reliable

While many people mistakenly think that open source software is less reliable than a commercial solution, this is not always the case. When it comes to well-established open source projects, hundreds to thousands of independent programmers work together to make the software as stable and secure as possible. This is a major advantage over proprietary code, which relies on the company or author that created it to continue working on it and maintaining it.

It is also important to remember that a disgruntled or bribed employee can still insert Trojan horses into proprietary software, but this is far less likely to happen in open source programs. The fact that so many eyes are on the code also makes it much easier to spot vulnerabilities and fix them quickly, something a proprietary vendor can’t do. For these reasons, companies should develop a nuanced understanding of open source. This includes a solid strategy for implementation, training and support.

It is safer

The fact that open source software is accessible to anyone allows would-be attackers to comb through its code to look for vulnerabilities. This gives it an advantage over closed source software, as it is often harder to check and fix a program’s errors without the permission of the author.

Programmers tend to write their code for two audiences: the computers that are going to execute it and other programmers who might update, adapt or maintain it at a later date. This approach results in robust, tried and tested software that powers much of the internet.

The community of users also offers a valuable source of feedback, making it easier for developers to spot and process problems that might have otherwise gone unnoticed. This can make software more stable and secure, which is important for businesses that rely on it. This is why some companies choose to use only open source software.

Click further for more knowledge

What is the Open Source Movement?

The open source movement is a social and business model that rejects secrecy and centralized control of creative work. It promotes transparency and unrestricted sharing of compiled computer programming language instructions, called source code.

The movement is credited with advancing technology at a breakneck pace. It has also spread beyond software to hardware.

It’s a social movement

The open source movement is a social movement that promotes the development of software as a public good. Its goal is to democratize the production of technology by removing barriers to entry. The movement is driven by a sense of community and mutual support. It also challenges the boundaries of private and public goods.

The free software movement was formed in the 1980s by a charismatic programmer named Richard Stallman. He believed that proprietary software denied computer users the freedoms that they deserved. This included the freedom to study and modify the program. He started the GNU project to develop a free UNIX-like operating system.

The movement has since expanded to include hardware. Many hardware manufactures now publish their product design specifications so that anyone can use them to make the product. This allows for more competition and innovation. However, the movement has not been without its problems. Its activist approach can alienate commercial software developers.

It’s a philosophy

The open source movement has a philosophical side, and it’s not just about free software. It’s about sharing information, collaboration, and a desire to create more value than you take in. These principles are also important to social change, and they can help you make more informed decisions about your business.

The movement began in the 1960s when computer programmers shared code they had written (hacked) with one another. Eventually, different technical cultures developed, with small groups of individuals sharing, modifying, and expanding code to solve common problems.

Today, open source is a global movement with commercial traction. Its success in operating systems and other critical software has surprised many analysts, and large corporations are now embracing it. This trend has created a new business model that is changing the way we think about software.

It’s a business model

A successful open source business model requires a company to understand what kind of value it can provide. This includes analyzing the market to determine whether there’s a demand for open-source software. For example, the World Wide Web was made possible by Tim Berners-Lee and Marc Andreessen’s decision to release their code under a free software license. This model can be applied to any type of software.

Another way to make money with an open source project is to offer add-on features. This can include subscriptions or a “software as a service” solution. This allows companies to get a return on their investment while retaining control of the core technology.

However, this model isn’t for everyone. Many people argue that a company should not be allowed to profit from open-source software. For example, github is a great platform for developers to collaborate on projects, but they also sell the software as a service. Opening up the source for github would cut into their profits.

It’s a way of life

The open source movement is a community of programmers who collaborate to create new technology. It is a model that has become a fundamental part of software development and has also spread to other areas of business. Many websites use open-source software. It allows developers to share code and build better, more stable applications. It also allows developers to work together to solve bugs and improve features.

Most open-source software projects start with a single programmer or small team. These programmers contribute their time to testing, writing documentation, and building the project website. They are known as contributors, and they are rewarded with the satisfaction of developing quality software.

The open-source philosophy also applies to other kinds of work, such as research and education. For example, Wikipedia, a free, user-edited online encyclopedia, is based on the open source principle. It also applies to Web-based social networks, such as MySpace and LiveJournal. These communities have established a code of conduct that protects participants from harassment and discrimination.

Go Home